Hang with dog folks long enough and you're sure to hear some pretty interesting theories about dog behavior. Some are, of course, useful and accurate, but the dog training world is littered with myths, many of which are at least several generations old. Some of them are just silly; some have the potential for causing serious damage to the dog-human relationship; and still others are downright dangerous. It's time to get past the myths.
Veterinary behaviorist Dr. Lore Haug of Sugar Land, Texas, recently compiled a comprehensive list of dog behavior myths. With her blessing, we're sharing 10 of our "favorites" from her list, and explaining why these "busted" myths should not be used as the justification for a training or behavior modification technique.
I am always exhorting my interns, apprentices, and clients to be critical thinkers. When someone offers you an alleged nugget of canine wisdom, regardless of who the someone is, you're wise to run it through your own rigorous filters before accepting it as real wisdom or adopting it as the basis for a training technique. These should include:
- A scientific filter. Does it make sense scientifically? If someone assures you that shock collar training is actually positive reinforcement training because the shock is no different than someone tapping you on the shoulder to get you to stop a behavior, does that concur with your understanding of positive reinforcement? (That a dog's behavior makes a good thing happen, so the behavior increases.) Don't be fooled by the euphemisms "e-collar" and "tingle," "tap," or "stim" for the word "shock."
- A philosophical filter. Is it congruent with your own philosophies about dog training and relationships? Positive punishment (dog's behavior makes a bad thing happen; behavior decreases) makes sense from a scientific standpoint. That doesn't mean you want to - or have to - use it with your dog, and risk the damage it can do to your relationship. Trainers with a positive training philosophy generally try to avoid the use of positive punishment, or any methods that work through the use of fear, pain, aversives, and avoidance.
- An "acid test" filter. It may seem sound scientifically, and it may feel okay philosophically, but does it work? If you're comfortable trying it out and you don't like the results, feel free to continue on and explore why it's not working or simply toss it out. Just because it works for someone else doesn't mean it has to work for you.
Now, keeping these filters in mind, let's see how some of the most common and harmful myths about canine behavior create a flawed foundation for training.
"Puppies should not go to puppy classes/the mall/friends' houses until they have had all their vaccinations at 16 weeks/6 months of age." (Fails all three tests.)
This one lands squarely at the top of the "dangerous myth" category. It's generally perceived as credible by new puppy owners because it's often offered by the pup's veterinarian.
While it appears scientifically sound on its face (an unvaccinated puppy is at risk for contracting deadly diseases!), puppies who aren't properly socialized are at a much greater risk for developing behavior problems, including aggression, that are likely to shorten their lives.
The vet is right on one hand; the best way to ensure that your pup isn't exposed to dog germs is to avoid other dogs. It's certainly true that you want to prevent your pup's exposure to unknown and/or possibly unhealthy dogs (and their waste). But it's also critically important that your pup get lots of exposure to the rest of the world, including healthy puppies in a controlled environment, before the critical socialization period ends at 12 to 16 weeks. If he doesn't, he'll be at risk of developing serious, sometimes deadly, behavior problems. (See "Shoot for Early Admission," WDJ September 2007, for more information on early education for puppies.)
In addition, during the period leading up to the age of four to six months, your pup has protection from his mother's immunities, and should receive "puppy shots" to cover that period of time when his mother's protection starts to decrease. Not only is it "okay" to take your pup places while exercising reasonable caution, you have an obligation to provide him with extensive socialization in order to maximize his chances of leading a long and happy life.
"Dogs pull on leash, jump up on people, (add your own) because they are dominant." (Fails scientific and philosophical tests.)
Like the first myth discussed, this one can be dangerous, because those who believe this myth are likely to believe that they need to use forceful methods to assert their status over their "dominant" dogs.
No one disputes that dogs living in a group understand and respond to the concepts and dictates off a social hierarchy. The fact that canine social structures share elements with human social structures is probably one of the reasons that dogs make such wonderful companions for us. However, most experts in animal behavior today believe that canine social hierarchies are much more based on deference than dominance, and that most canine behavior that many misguided humans attribute to dominance ... isn't!
A dog's goal in life is to make good stuff happen. Behaviors often labeled "dominant" because they are perceived as pushy and assertive -like pulling on leash and jumping up - simply persist because the dog has learned that the behaviors are reinforced; they make good stuff happen. Pulling on leash gets her where she wants to go. Jumping up gets attention. Behaviors that are reinforced continue, and even increase - but they have nothing to do with social status.
If you remove all reinforcement for the unwelcome behaviors (pulling makes us stop; jumping up makes attention go away) and reinforce more appropriate behaviors in their place, the dog will change her behavior.
"If you let your dog sleep on the bed/eat first/go through doors first/win at tug-o-war, he will become the alpha." (Fails all three tests.)
This one is mostly just silly. Some sources even suggest that the entire family must gather in the kitchen and take turns buttering and eating a cracker before the dog can be fed. Seriously!
See Myth #2 for the myth busting response to this one. If you don't want your dog on the furniture, that's your lifestyle choice, but you don't need to defend it with the alpha-garbage argument. I feed my dogs before I eat so I don't have to feel guilty about them being hungry while I fill my own belly. I teach my dogs to sit and wait for permission to go through the door ("say please!") because it's a polite, safe behavior and reinforces deference, but not because I'm terrified that they'll take over the house. And I like to win tug-o-war a lot because it reinforces polite behavior. You can quit worrying about your dog becoming alpha just because you don't rule with an iron first.
If you are concerned that your dog is too pushy you can implement a "Say Please" program, where your dog asks politely for all good things by sitting - a nice, polite, deference behavior (see "Be a Benevolent Leader," WDJ August, 2003). If you think your dog is potentially aggressive, it's even more important to avoid conflict; your attempts to physically dominate him are likely to escalate his aggression rather than resolve it. (See "Biscuits, Not Rolls," WDJ July 2006.) If aggression is a real concern, we recommend you consult with a qualified, positive behavior professional who can help you modify your dog's behavior without the use of force.
"Dogs can't learn from positive reinforcement. You have to punish them so they know when they are wrong." (Fails scientific and philosophical tests; fails acid test unless punisher is very skilled.)
This myth has good potential for causing serious harm to the canine-human relationship. Research confirms what positive trainers hold dear: that positive reinforcement training is more effective and has far fewer risks than positive reinforcement training combined with positive punishment.
One study, conducted by scientists at the University of Southampton in the UK and the University of Life Sciences in Norway, evaluated whether punishment was a contributor to behavior problems, and examined the effects of reward, punishment, and rule structure (permissiveness/strictness and consistency) on training and behavior problems. Information was collected via questionnaires from 217 dog guardians. Those who used strong and/or frequent punishment had a significantly higher level of training problems and lower obedience in their dogs. A similar study, conducted at Britain's University of Bristol, also found that dogs trained only with positive reinforcement exhibited fewer problem behaviors.
For most humans, this makes sense. Do you learn better if someone acknowledges (and rewards) you when you do it right, or slaps you upside the head when you do it wrong? Even if you get rewarded for doing it right, if you also get slapped for doing it wrong, your fear of getting slapped will likely impede your learning and make you more reluctant to try things.
Of course, a good positive training program makes use of management to avoid giving the dog opportunities to be reinforced for unwanted behaviors, and will also make judicious use of negative punishment (dog's behavior makes a good thing go away) to let him know he made an unrewarding behavior choice.
For more information on why training programs that utilize positive reinforcement are most effective, see "We're Positive," WDJ January 2007.
"If you use treats to train, you will always need them." (Fails all three tests.)
This just isn't true. A good positive training program will quickly "fade" the use of food as a constant reinforcer while moving to a schedule of intermittent reinforcement and expanding the repertoire of reinforcers to include things like toys, play, petting, praise, and the opportunity to perform some other highly reinforcing behavior.
Treats can be a very high-value reinforcer and quite useful in training a wide variety of behaviors, so it's plain silly to turn your back on them. Just be sure to fade food lures quickly in a training program, move to an intermittent schedule of reinforcement when your dog will perform a behavior on cue 8 out of I 0 times, and incorporate a variety of reinforcers so you're never dependent on anyone particular reward choice. (For more information about how some people might fail when applying positive training techniques the wrong way, see "Positive Mistakes," May 2007.)
"A dog who urinates inside/destroys the house/barks when he is left alone does so because he is spiteful." (Fails the scientific and philosophical tests.)
This myth definitely causes harm to the dog-human relationship. Dogs don't do things out of spite, and to think so gives owners a negative perspective on their relationship with their canine family member. Dogs do things because they feel good, they work to make good stuff happen (or to make bad stuff go away), or because they are reacting to events that occur in their environment. While our dogs share much the same range of emotions as we humans, they don't seem to indulge in all the same motives. Spite requires a certain amount of premeditation and cognitive thinking that science doesn't support as being evident in the canine behavior repertoire.
There are two rational explanations for the behaviors described in this myth. The first is that the dog isn't fully housetrained and hasn't yet learned house manners. In the absence of direct supervision, the dog urinates when he has a full bladder (an empty bladder feels good) and becomes destructive because playing with/chewing sofa cushions, shoes, ripping down curtains, tipping over the garbage, and barking are fun and rewarding activities.
The other explanation is that the dog suffers from some degree of isolation distress. These behaviors are often a manifestation of stress and the dog's attempt to relieve his anxiety over being left alone. If your dog regularly urinates ( or worse) in the house or destroys things when he is left alone, he may be suffering from a moderate degree of isolation distress, or more severe separation anxiety. This condition can worsen without appropriate management. For more information, see "Relieving Anxiety," August 200 I - and consider a consultation with an animal behavior specialist.
"If you feed a dog human food, he will learn to beg at the table." (Fails all three tests.)
This is silly! One dog owner's "begging" is another's "attention" behavior, eagerly sought-after and highly valued. Behaviors that are reinforced continue and/or increase. If you fed your dog his own dog food from the table, he would learn to beg at the table. It has nothing to do with what type of food he's being fed! If you don't want your dog to beg at the table, don't feed your dog from the table.
WDJ readers know full well that human-grade food is better for dogs than much of the junk that's in many brands of dog food. Whether it's fed in a form that we recognize as something we might consume, or it's been transformed into something that more resembles our mental concept of "dog food," it all still comes from the same basic food ingredients.
"He knows he was bad/did wrong because he looks guilty." (Fails all three tests.)
This myth is damaging to the relationship, as it leads owners to hold dogs to a moral standard that they aren't capable of possessing. When a dog looks "guilty," he is most likely responding to a human's tense or angry body language with appeasement behaviors. He's probably thinking something like, "I don't know why, but my human looks upset. I'd better offer some appeasement behaviors so her anger isn't directed at me!"
Even when the "guilty" expression is a direct and immediate result of your dog's behavior because your punishment was timely - "Hey! Get out of the garbage!" - your dog's turned head, lowered body posture, averted eyes - are simply an acknowledgement of your anger and his attempt to reconcile with you.
A trainer friend of mine once did an experiment to convince a client that her dearly held "guilty look" belief was a myth. He had the client hold her dog in the living room while he went into the kitchen and dumped the garbage can on the floor, strewing its contents nicely around the room. Then he had the client bring the dog into the kitchen. Sure enough, the dog "acted guilty" even though he had nothing to do with the garbage on the floor. He just knew from past experience that "garbage on floor" turned his owner into an angry human, and he was already offering appeasement behavior in anticipation of her anger, and to divert her ire from his dog-self. (For more information about canine body language, see "I Submit," April 2006.)
Finally, most owners who have punished a dog for something that was done in their absence can attest to the fact that the punishment generally does not prevent the dog from repeating the behavior another time. What does work is simple management. Put the garbage somewhere that the dog can't get to it; under a sink with a safety latch on it, for example. Keep counters clear of anything edible. Leave the dog in a part of the house that is comfortable but not easily destroyed. Hire a dog walker to come by in the middle of your dog's longest days home alone to let him out, give him some stress-relieving exercise, and leave him with a food-filled chew toy. These actions will result in an intact home - and a dog who is not afraid to greet you when you return.
"The prong collar works by mimicking a mother dog's teeth and her corrections." (Fails the scientific and philosophical tests.)
It's a little discouraging to think that people actually believe this myth. It would be silly if it weren't so potentially damaging to the relationship and potentially dangerous as well.
Prong collars work because the prongs pressing into the dog's neck are uncomfortable at best, painful at worst. Because dogs will work to avoid pain and discomfort, the prong collar does work to stop a dog from pulling on the leash, and can shut down other undesirable behaviors as well, at least temporarily. However, like all training tools and techniques that are based on pain and intimidation, there is a significant risk of unintended consequences.
In the case of the prong collar, the primary risk is that the dog will associate the pain with something in his environment at the time he feels it, and this can lead to aggression toward the mistakenly identified cause. A dog's unmannerly, "I want to greet you" lunge toward another dog or person can turn into, "I want to eat you," if he decides that the object of his attention is hurting him.
If you have used or are considering the use of a prong collar to control your dog, please consult with a qualified positive behavior consultant to learn about more effective and less potentially harmful methods.
"Aggressive/hand-shy/fearful dogs must have been abused at some point in their lives." (Fails the scientific test.)
This is a very widespread myth; I hear it so often it makes my brain hurt. Fortunately, while the behaviors described in this myth are problematic, the myth itself may be the most benign of our top 1 O.
There are many reasons a dog may be aggressive, hand-shy, or fearful. Lack of proper socialization tops the list, especially for fearfulness. If a pup doesn't get a wide variety of positive social exposures and experiences during the first 12 to 14 weeks of his life, he's likely to be neophobic - afraid of new things - for the rest of his life (see Myth #1). This neophobia manifests as fear, and for some dogs, as fear-related aggressIOn.
Widely accepted categories of aggression include:
- Defensive (fear-related) aggression
- Possession aggression (resource-guarding)
- Maternal aggression
- Territorial aggression
- Status-related aggression
- Pain-related aggression
- Protection aggression
- Predatory aggression
- Play aggression
- Idiopathic (we don't know what causes it) aggression
Note that there's no category for "abuse-related" aggression. Abuse can be one of several causes of fear-related/defensive aggression, but is much less common than the fear-related aggression that results from undersocialization.
Regardless of the cause of a dog's fearful or aggressive behavior, a mythcorollary to our Myth #1 0 is that love alone will be enough to "fix" the problem. While love is a vital ingredient for the most successful dog-human relationships, it takes far more than that to help a fearful dog become confident, or an aggressive one become friendly. For more about rehabilitating a chronically fearful dog, see "Fear Itself," April 2007.
Pat Miller, CPDT, is WDJ's Training Editor. Miller lives in Hagerstown, Maryland, site of her Peaceable Paws training center. Pat is also the author of The Power of Positive Dog Training and Positive Perspectives: Love Your Dog, Train Your Dog.